### Section properties |

Elastic modulus - major axis, yy^{ } | W_{el} = **16.4** cm^{3} | |

Plastic modulus - major axis, yy^{ } | W_{pl} = **18.9** cm^{3} | |

Second moment of area - major axis, yy^{ } | I_{y} = **64.1** cm^{4} | |

Second moment of area - minor axis, zz^{ } | I_{z} = **6.85** cm^{4} | |

Warping constant^{ } | I_{w} = **0.00009** dm^{6} | |

Torsional constant^{ } | I_{T} = **0.38** cm^{4} | |

Area of section^{ } | A = **630** mm^{2} | |

### Factors and design values of material coefficients (EN 1993-1-1:2005 and National Annex) |

Young's modulus of elasticity | E = **210,000** N/mm² | cl.3.2.6 |

Poisson's ratio in elastic stage | v = **0.3** | cl.3.2.6 |

Shear modulus | G_{s} = **81,000** N/mm² | cl.3.2.6 |

Partial factor for resistance of cross-sections | γ_{M0} = **1** | cl.6.1(1)B / BS-EN NA |

Partial factor for resistance to instability | γ_{M1} = **1** | cl.6.1(1)B / BS-EN NA |

Factor for shear area | η = **1** | EN 1993-1-5:2006 cl.5.1(2) / BS-EN NA |

Limiting non dimensional slenderness ratio | λ_{LT,0} = **0.4** | cl.6.3.2.3(1) / BS-EN NA |

Beta factor for buckling reduction factor calculation | β = **0.75** | cl.6.3.2.3(1) / BS-EN NA |

### Yield strength |

Nominal yield strength for S355 grade and nominal section thickness 4.20 mm | f_{y} = **355** N/mm² | Arcelor Mittal orange book |

### Section classification (EN 1993-1-1:2005 cl.5.5) |

Epsilon | ε = **0.814** | EN 1993-1-1:2005 Table 5.2 |

Flange ratio for local buckling | c_{f} / t_{f} = **3.9** | |

Flange ratio limit for class 1 | 9 ε = **7.32** | Table 5.2 (sheet 2 of 3) |

Flange class | Class_{f} = **1** | |

Web ratio for local buckling | c_{w} / t_{w} = **18.6** | |

Web ratio limit for class 1 | 72 ε = **58.6** | Table 5.2 (sheet 1 of 3) |

Web class | Class_{w} = **1** | |

Section class | Class = **1** | |

### Shear resistance (EN 1993-1-1:2005 cl.6.2.6) |

Height of web | h_{w} = **69.6** mm | |

Shear area for I and H sections | A_{v} = **299** mm² | cl.6.2.6 (3) |

Design shear resistance | V_{pl,Rd} = **61.3** kN | eq (6.18) |

### Shear buckling (EN 1993-1-5:2006 cl.5) |

The shear buckling resistance for webs should be verified according to Section 5 of EN 1993-1-5 if (h_{w} / t_{w}) > (72 ε / η) | | |

Web ratio for shear buckling | h_{w} / t_{w} = **21.7** | EN 1993-1-5:2006 cl.5.1 (2) |

Shear buckling limit | 72 ε / η = **58.6** | EN 1993-1-5:2006 cl.5.1 (2) |

(h_{w} / t_{w}) <= (72 ε / η) therefore shear buckling calculation not required | | |

### Bending resistance (EN 1993-1-1:2005 cl.6.2.5) |

The shear force (11 kN) is less than half of the plastic shear resistance (61 kN / 2 = 31 kN), therefore its effect on moment resistance may be neglected. |

Class 1 section, therefore use plastic modulus | W_{pl} = **18,900** mm³ | |

Design bending resistance | M_{c,Rd} = **6.71** kNm | eq (6.13) |

### Design buckling resistance (EN 1993-1-1:2005 cl.6.3.2) |

C1 factor | C1 = **1** | |

Shear modulus of elasticity | G_{s} = **81,000** N/mm² | cl.3.2.6 (1) |

Buckling length | L_{cr} = **1,000** mm | |

Critical buckling moment | M_{CR} = **8.38** kNm | NCCI SN003b-EN-EU |

Class 1 section, therefore use plastic modulus | W_{pl} = **18,900** mm³ | cl.6.3.2.1(3) |

Non-dimensional slenderness ratio | λ_{LT} = **0.895** | cl.6.3.2.2 (1) |

Depth to width ratio for buckling curve | h / b = **1.7** | |

Buckling curve for h / b ratio | Buckling curve = **b** | Table 6.5 / BS-EN NA |

Imperfection factor for buckling curve b | α_{LT} = **0.34** | Table 6.3 / BS-EN NA |

Intermediate factor for reduction factor calculation | φ_{LT} = **0.884** | cl.6.3.2.3 (1) |

Buckling reduction factor | χ_{LT} = **0.763** | eq (6.57) |

Correction factor for moment distribution | k_{c} = **1** | Table 6.6 |

Moment distribution modification factor | f = **1** | cl.6.3.2.3 (2) |

Modified buckling reduction factor | χ_{LT,mod} = **0.763** | eq (6.58) |

Design buckling resistance | M_{b,Rd} = **5.12** kNm | eq (6.55) |